Thursday, July 29, 2021

Improvements of DBT2 benchmark in RonDB 21.10.1

In the development of RonDB 21.10.1 we have had some focus on improving the performance of the DBT2 benchmark for RonDB.  Actually NDB Cluster already had very good performance for DBT2. However this performance relies on a thread configuration that uses a lot of LDM threads and this means that tables will have very many partitions.

For an application like DBT2 (open source variant of TPC-C) this is not an issue since it is a very scalable application. But most real applications are not as scalable as DBT2 when the number of table partitions increases.

In RonDB we have focused on decreasing the number of table partitions. Thus in RonDB the number of partitions are independent of the number of LDM threads. In DBT2 most of the load are generated towards one of the tables, this means that only a subset of the LDM threads are used in executing DBT2. Even more most of the load is directed towards the primary replicas.

In RonDB 21.10.1 we improved the placement of the primary replicas such that more LDM threads were active in executing the queries. This improved DBT2 performance by about 20%.

Already in RonDB 21.04 we have introduced query threads that can be used for reads using Committed Reads. This makes application using Committed Reads scale very well such as the Online Feature Store in used by Hopsworks. However DBT2 uses a very small number of Committed Reads, most reads are using reads that lock rows. To handle this we modified RonDB 21.10 to allow also locked reads to use query threads.

Query thread already have an efficient scheduling of read queries towards LDM threads and query threads, thus ensuring that all CPUs used for LDM threads and query threads are efficiently used. With the ability to schedule locked read operations towards query threads we automatically make more efficient use of the CPU resources in the DBT2 benchmark. This improvement gives 50% better DBT2 performance for RonDB.

Another feature we made use of in the DBT2 benchmark is the ndb_import tool. Thus the load phase for DBT2 is using the ndb_import tool. This provides a very efficient parallel load tool. Both RonDB 21.04 and RonDB 21.10 contains improvements of the ndb_import tool to enable DBT2 to use it as a load tool.

Finally in RonDB 21.10.1 we also removed the index statistics mutex in the NDB storage engine as a bottleneck. This improves Sysbench throughput by about 10% at high load. We haven't measured how much it impacts the DBT2 performance.

New RonDB releases

It is in the middle of the summer, but we found some time to prepare a new RonDB release. Today we are proud to release new RonDB versions.

RonDB is a stable distribution of NDB Cluster, a key-value store with SQL capabilities. It is based on a release of MySQL, an SQL database server.

RonDB 21.04.1 is the second release of the stable version of RonDB. It contains 3 new features and 18 bug fixes. We plan to support RonDB 21.04 until 2024.

RonDB 21.10.1 is the first beta version of RonDB 21.10. It contains 4 new features that improves throughput of the DBT2 benchmark by 70% compared to RonDB 21.04.1.

Detailed release notes are available in the RonDB documentation.

The new features in RonDB 21.04.1 are:

  1. Support for primary keys using Longvarchar in ClusterJ, the native Java API for RonDB
  2. Support for autoincrement in the ndb_import tool
  3. Killing ndbmtd now uses a graceful shutdown avoiding unnecessary abort
The new features in RonDB 21.10.1 are:
  1. Improved placement of primary replicas
  2. Removing index statistics mutex as a bottleneck in MySQL Server
  3. More flexibility in thread configuration
  4. Use query threads also for Reads which locks the row
Work on RonDB 21.04.2 is already ongoing and is mainly focused on backporting bug fixes from MySQL 8.0.24 through 8.0.26 that are deemed safe and important enough for a back port. The branch used for development of RonDB 21.04 is called 21.04.

Work on RonDB 21.10.2 has already started where we integrated changes from MySQL 8.0.26. The branch used for RonDB 21.10 is called 21.10.1.

There is ongoing work on RonDB to improve use of memory resources. This includes making schema memory use the global memory resources. It also introduces some common malloc functions using global memory resources. This development is a base for many future RonDB improvements that will make it easier to develop new features in RonDB. This work is found in the branch schema_memory_21102 currently.

Here is the GitHub tree for RonDB.

The flexible thread configuration was used for some research on thread pipelines presented in this blog.