NDB Cluster 8.0 is based on. I am going to also list a number of consequences
these requirements have on the product and what it supports.
One slideshare.net I uploaded a presentation of the NDB Cluster 8.0
requirements. In this blog and several accompanying I am going to present the
reasoning that these requirements led to in terms of software architecture, data
structures and so forth.
The requirements on NDB Cluster 8.0 is the following:
1) Unavailability of less than 30 seconds per year (Class 6 Availability)
2) Predictable latency
3) Transparent Distribution and Replication
4) Write and Read Scalability
5) Highest availability even with 2 replicas
6) Support SQL, LDAP, File System interface, ...
7) Mixed OLTP and OLAP for real-time data analysis
8) Follow HW development for CPUs, networks, disks and memories
9) Follow HW development in Cloud Setups
The original requirements of NDB Cluster was to only support Class 5 Availability.
Telecom providers have continued supporting even higher number of subscribers per
telecom database and thus driving the requirements to even be Class 6 Availability.
NDB Cluster have more than 15 years proven track record of handling Class 6
The requirements on predictable latency means that we need to be able to handle
transactions involving around twenty operations within 10 milliseconds even when
the cluster is working at a high load.
To make sure that application development is easy we opted for a model where
distribution and replication is transparent from the application code. This means that
NDB Cluster is one of very few DBMSs that support auto-sharding requirements.
High Write Scalability has been a major requirement in NDB from day one.
NDB Cluster can handle tens of million transactions per second, most competing
DBMS products that are based on replication protocols can only handle
tens of thousands of transactions per second.
We used an arbitration model to avoid the requirements of 3 replicas, with
NDB Cluster 8.0 we fully support 3 and 4 replicas as well, but even with 2 replicas
we get the same availability as competing products based on replication protocols
require 3 replicas for.
The original requirements on NDB didn't include a SQL interface. An efficient
API was much more important for telecom applications. However when meeting
customers of a DBMS it was obvious that an SQL interface was needed.
So this requirement was added in the early 2000s. However most early users of
NDB Cluster still opted for a more direct API and this means that NDB Cluster
today have LDAP interfaces through OpenLDAP, file system interface through
HopsFS and a lot of products that use the NDB API (C++), ClusterJ (Java) and
an NDB NodeJS API.
The model of development for NDB makes it possible to also handle complex queries
in an efficient manner. Thus in development of NDB Cluster 8.0 we added the
requirement to better support also OLAP use cases of the OLTP data that is stored in
NDB Cluster. We have already made very significant improvements in this area by
supporting parallelised filters and to a great extent parallelisation of join processing
in the NDB Data Nodes. This is an active development area for the coming
generations of NDB Cluster.
NDB Cluster started its development in the 1990s. Already in this development we
could foresee some of the HW development that was going to happen. The product
has been able to scale as HW have been more and more scalable. Today this means that
each node in NDB Cluster can scale to 64 cores, data nodes can scale to 16 TB of
memory and at least 100 TB of disk data and can benefit greatly from higher and
higher bandwidth on the network.
Finally modern deployments often happen in cloud environments. Clouds are based
on an availability model with regions, availability domains and failure domains.
Thus NDB Cluster software needs to make it possible to make efficient use of
locality in the HW configurations.