source code. This describes a fairly detailed view of what is performed in
the various restart phases of MySQL Cluster and in particular for node
In MySQL Cluster the restart is processed in phases, the restart of a node
is driven by a set of phases. In addition a node restart is also synchronised
with already started nodes and other nodes that are starting up in parallel
with our node. This comment will describe the various phases used.
Data node process startup
The first step in starting a node is to create the data node run-time
environment. The data node process is normally running with an angel process,
this angel process ensures that the data node is automatically restarted in
cases of failures. So the only reason to run the data node again is after an
OS crash or after a shutdown by an operator or as part of a software upgrade.
When starting up the data node, the data node needs a node id, this is either
assigned through setting the parameter --ndb-nodeid when starting the data
node, or it is assigned by the management server when retrieving the
configuration. The angel process will ensure that the assigned node id will be
the same for all restarts of the data node.
After forking the data node process, the starting process stays as the angel
process and the new process becomes the actual data node process. The actual
data node process starts by retrieving the configuration from the management
At this stage we have read the options, we have allocated a node id, we have
the configuration loaded from the management server. We will print some
important information to the data node log about our thread configuration and
some other things. To ensure that we find the correct files and create files
in the correct place we set the datadir of our data node process.
Next we have to start the watch-dog thread since we are now starting to do
activities where we want to ensure that we don't get stuck due to some
Next we will allocate the memory of the global memory pools, this is where
most memory is allocated, we still have a fair amount of memory allocated as
part of the initialisation of the various software modules in the NDB kernel,
but step by step we're moving towards usage of the global memory pools.
Allocating memory can be a fairly time-consuming process where the OS can
require up to one second for each GByte of memory allocated (naturally OS
dependent and will change over time). What actually consumes the time here is
actually that we also touch each page to ensure that the allocated memory is
also mapped to real physical memory to avoid page misses while we're running
the process. To speed up this process we have made the touching of memory
Actually where most memory is allocated is configurable, the configuration
variable LateAlloc can be used to delay the allocation of most memory to early
phases of the restart.
The only memory that is required to allocate in the early phase is the job
buffer, memory for sending messages over the network and finally memory for
messages to and from the file system threads. So allocation of e.g.
DataMemory, IndexMemory and DiskPageBufferMemory can be delayed until the
early start phases.
After allocating the global memory pool we initialise all data used by the
run-time environment. This ensures that we're ready to send and receive data
between the threads used in the data node process as soon as they are started.
At this point we've only started the watch-dog process and the thread started
as part of creating the process (this thread will later be converted to the
first receive thread if we're running ndbmtd and the only execution thread if
we are running ndbd). Next step is to load all software modules and initialise
those to ensure they're properly set-up when the messages start arriving for
Before we start the run-time environment we also need to activate the send
and receive services. This involves creating a socket client thread that
attempts to connect to socket server parts of other nodes in the cluster and
a thread to listen to the socket server used for those data nodes we
communicate with as the socket server.
The default behaviour is that the node with the lowest nodeid is the socket
server in the communication setup. This can be changed in the data node
Before we proceed and start the data node environment we will place the start
signals of the run-time environment in its proper job buffer. Actually to
start the system one needs to place two equal signals in the job buffer. The
first start signal starts the communication to other nodes and sets the state
to wait for the next signal to actually start the system. The second one will
start running the start phases. There is support to set the node in such a
state that it has received the first of these signals and then wait for the
NDB management server to send the second of those signals at command from a
user of the NDB management client.
Finally we start all the threads of the run-time environment. These can
currently include a main thread, a rep thread, a number of tc threads,
a number of send threads, a number of receive threads and a number of
ldm threads. Given that communication buffers for all threads have been
preallocated, we can start sending signals immediately as those threads
startup. The receiving thread will start to take care of its received signals
as soon as it has come to that point in its thread startup code.
There are two identical start signals, the first starts a recurring signal
that is sent on a regular basis to keep track of time in the data node.
Only the second one starts performing the various start phases.
Signal driven start phases
A startup of a data node is handled in a set of phases. The first phase is
to send the signal READ_CONFIG_REQ to all software modules in the kernel,
then STTOR is similarly sent to all software modules in 256 phases numbered
from 0 to 255. These are numbered from 0 to 255, we don't use all of those
phases, but the code is flexible such that any of those phases could be
used now or sometime in the future.
In addition we have 6 modules that are involved in one more set of start
phases. The signal sent in these phases are called NDB_STTOR. The original
idea was to view this message as the local start of the NDB subsystem.
These signals are sent and handled by NDBCNTR and sent as part of the STTOR
handling in NDBCNTR. This means that it becomes a sequential part of the
Before starting the phases we ensure that any management node can connect
to our node and that all other nodes are disconnected and that they can only
send messages to the QMGR module. The management server receives reports
about various events in the data node and the QMGR module is taking care of
the inclusion of the data node into the cluster. Before we're included in
the cluster we cannot communicate with other nodes in any manner.
(This inclusion protocol was described in an earlier blog).
The start always starts in the main thread where each software module is
represented by at least a proxy module that all multithreaded modules contain.
The proxy module makes it possible to easy send and receive messages to a
set of modules of the same type using one message and one reply.
The READ_CONFIG_REQ signals are always sent in the same order. It starts by
sending to CMVMI (originally was the interface to the data node internals,
stands for Cluster Manager Virtual Machine Interface), this is the block
that receives the start order and it performs a number of functions from
where the software modules can affect the run-time environment. It normally
allocates most memory of the process and touches all of this memory. It is
part of the main thread.
The next module receiving READ_CONFIG_REQ is NDBFS, this is the module that
controls the file system threads, this module is found in the main thread.
Next module is DBINFO, this module supports the ndbinfo database used to get
information about the data node internals in table format, this module is
found in the main thread.
Next is DBTUP, this is the module where the actual data is stored. Next DBACC,
the module where primary key and unique key hash indexes are stored and where
we control row locks from. Both those blocks are contained in the ldm threads.
Next is DBTC, the module where transaction coordination is managed from,
this module is part of the tc thread. Next is DBLQH, the module that controls
the actions on data through key operations and scans and also handles the
REDO logs. This is the main module of the ldm thread.
Next is DBTUX that operates ordered index reusing pages used to store rows
in DBTUP, also part of the ldm thread. Next is DBDICT, the dictionary module
used to store and handle all metadata information about tables and columns,
tablespaces, log files and so forth. DICT is part of the main thread.
Next is DBDIH, the module to store and handle distribution information about
all tables, the table partitions and all replicas of each partition. It
controls the local checkpoint process, the global checkpoint process and
controls a major part of the restart processing. The DIH module is a part of
the main thread.
Next is NDBCNTR that controls the restart phases, it's part of the main
thread. Next is QMGR which takes care of the heartbeat protocol and inclusion
and exclusion of nodes in the cluster. It's part of the main thread.
Next is TRIX that performs a few services related to ordered indexes and other
trigger-based services. It's part of the tc thread. Next is BACKUP, this is
used for backups and local checkpoints and is part of the ldm thread.
Next is DBUTIL that provides a number of services such as performing key
operations on behalf of code in the modules. It's part of the main thread.
Next is the SUMA module that takes care of replication events, this is the
module handled by the rep thread.
Next is TSMAN, then LGMAN, and then PGMAN that are all part of the disk data
handling taking care of tablespace, UNDO logging and page management. They
are all part of the ldm thread.
RESTORE is a module used to restore local checkpoints as part of a startup.
This module is also part of the ldm thread.
Finally we have the DBSPJ module that takes care of join queries pushed down
to the data node, it executes as part of the tc thread.
The DBTUP, DBACC, DBLQH, DBTUX, BACKUP, TSMAN, LGMAN,
PGMAN, RESTORE are all tightly integrated modules that takes care of
the data and indexes locally in each node. This set of modules form an
LDM instance, each node can have multiple LDM instances and these
can be spread over a set of threads. Each LDM instance owns its own
partition of the data and has its own set of REDO log files.
We also have two modules that are not a part of restart handling, this is the
TRPMAN module that performs a number of transport-related functions
(communication with other nodes). It executes in the receive threads. Finally
we have the THRMAN that executes in every thread and does some thread
All modules receive READ_CONFIG_REQ, all modules also receive STTOR for
phase 0 and phase 1. In phase 1 they report back which startphases they want
to get informed about more.
During the READ_CONFIG_REQ the threads can execute for a very long time in
a module since we can be allocating and touching memory of large sizes. This
means that our watchdog thread have a special timeout for this phase to
ensure that we don't crash the process simply due to a long time of
initialising our memory. In normal operations each signal should execute only
for a small number of microseconds.
The start phases are synchronized by sending the message STTOR to all modules,
logically each module gets this signal for each start phase from 0 to 255.
However the response message STTORRY contains the list of start phases the
module really is interested in.
The NDBCNTR module that handles the start phase signals can optimise away
any signals not needed. The order in which modules receive the STTOR message
is the same for all phases:
In addition there is a special start phase handling controlled by NDBCNTR,
so when NDBCNTR receives its own STTOR message it starts a local start phase
handling involving the modules, DBLQH, DBDICT, DBTUP, DBACC,
DBTC and DBDIH.
This happens for phases 2 through 8. The messages sent in these start phases
are NDB_STTOR and NDB_STTORRY, they are handled in a similar manner
to STTOR and STTORRY. The modules receive also those start phases in the
same order for all phases and this order is:
For those modules that are multithreaded, the STTOR and NDB_STTOR messages
always are received by the Proxy module that executes in the main thread.
The Proxy module will then send the STTOR and NDB_STTOR messages to each
individual instance of the module (the number of instances is normally the
same as the number of threads, but could sometimes be different). It does
so in parallel, so all instances execute STTOR in parallel.
So effectively each instance of a module will logically first receive
READ_CONFIG_REQ, then a set of STTOR messages for each start phase and some
modules will also receive NDB_STTOR in a certain order. All these messages
are sent in a specific order and sequentially. So this means that we have the
ability to control when things are done by performing it in the correct start
Next we will describe step-by-step what happens in a node restart (or a node
start as part of a cluster start/restart). The startup is currently a
sequential process except where it is stated that it happens in parallel.
The below description thus describes the order things actually happens
The READ_CONFIG_REQ does more or less the same for all software modules. It
allocates the memory required by the software module and initialises the
memory (creates various free lists and so forth). It also reads the various
configuration parameter which is of interest to the module (these often
affect the size of the memory we allocate).
It starts in CMVMI that allocates most of the global memory pool, next we
have NDBFS that creates the necessary file directories for disk data, it
also creates the bound IO threads that can be used by one file at a time
(initial number of threads configurable through InitalNoOpenFiles), then it
creates a number of free threads (number of them configurable through
IOThreadPool) used by disk data files (all files used to handle disk data),
each such thread can be used to open/read/write/close a disk data file.
Finally NDBFS also creates the communication channel from the file system
threads back to the other threads.
All other modules follow the same standard, they calculate a number of sizes
based on hard coded defines or through configuration variables, they allocate
memory for those variables, finally they initialise those allocated memory
STTOR Phase 0First STTOR phase executed is STTOR phase 0. The only modules doing anything
in this phase is NDBCNTR that clears the file system if the start is an initial
start and CMVMI that creates the file system directory.
STTOR Phase 1Next phase executed is STTOR phase 1, in this phase most modules initialise
some more data, references to neighbour modules are setup if necessary. In
addition DBDIH create some special mutexes that ensures that only one process
is involved in certain parts of the code at a time.
NDBCNTR initialises some data related to running NDB_STTOR starting in
phase 2. CMVMI locks memory if configured to do so, after this it installs the
normal watchdog timeout since now all large memory allocations are performed.
CMVMI also starts regular memory reporting.
QMGR is the most active module in this phase. It initialises some data, it
gets the restart type (initial start or normal start) from DBDIH, it opens
communication to all nodes in the cluster, it starts checking for node
failures of the include node handling. Finally it runs the protocol to
include the new node into the heartbeat protocol. This could take a while
since the node inclusion process can only bring in one node at a time and
the protocol contains some delays.
The BACKUP module then starts the disk speed check loop which will run as
long as the node is up and running.
STTOR Phase 2Next step is to execute STTOR phase 2. The only module that does anything in
STTOR phase 2 is NDBCNTR, it asks DIH for the restart type, it reads the node
from the configuration, it initialises the partial timeout variables that
controls for how long to wait before we perform a partial start.
NDBCNTR sends the signal CNTR_START_REQ to the NDBCNTR in the current
master node, this signal enables the master node to delay the start of this node if
necessary due to other starting nodes or some other condition. For cluster
starts/restarts it also gives the master node the chance to ensure we wait
for enough nodes to start up before we start the nodes.
The master only accepts one node at a time that has received CNTR_START_CONF,
the next node can only receive CNTR_START_CONF after the previous starting
node have completed copying the metadata and releasing the metadata locks and
locks on DIH info, that happens below in STTOR phase 5.
So in a rolling restart it is quite common that the first node will get
CNTR_START_CONF and then instead get blocked on the DICT lock waiting for
an LCP to complete. The other nodes starting up in parallel will instead
wait on CNTR_START_CONF since only one node at a time can pass this.
In 7.4 a new PAUSE LCP protocol has been implemented that will minimise this
wait for a LCP to complete, this will described in more detail in a coming
After receiving CNTR_START_CONF, NDBCNTR continues by running NDB_STTOR
phase 1. Here DBLQH initialises the node records, it starts a reporting
service. It does also initialise the data about the REDO log, this also
includes initialising the REDO log on disk for all types of initial start
(can be quite time consuming unless logs are configured to be initialised
in a sparse mode).
DBDICT initialises the schema file (contains the tables that have been created
in the cluster and other metadata objects). DBTUP initialises a default value
fragment and DBTC and DBDIH initialises some data variables. After completing
the NDB_STTOR phase in NDBCNTR there is no more work done in STTOR phase 2.
STTOR Phase 3Next step is to run the STTOR phase 3. Most modules that need the list of
nodes in the cluster reads this in this phase. DBDIH reads the nodes in this
phase, DBDICT sets the restart type. Next NDBCNTR receives this phase and
starts NDB_STTOR phase 2. In this phase DBLQH sets up connections from its
operation records to the operation records in DBACC and DBTUP. This is done
in parallel for all DBLQH module instances.
DBDIH now prepares the node restart process by locking the meta data. This
means that we will wait until any ongoing meta data operation is completed
and when it is completed we will lock the meta data such that no meta data
changes can be done until we're done with the phase where we are copying the
The reason for locking is that all meta data and distribution info is fully
replicated. So we need to lock this information while we are copying the data
from the master node to the starting node. While we retain this lock we cannot
change meta data through meta data transactions. Before copying the meta data
later we also need to ensure no local checkpoint is running since this also
updates the distribution information. In 7.4 it is sufficient to instead
use the PAUSE LCP protocol which contains a lot less waiting.
After locking this we need to request permission to start the node from the
master node. The request for permission to start the node is handled by the
starting node sending START_PERMREQ to the master node. This could receive a
negative reply if another node is already processing a node restart, it could
fail if an initial start is required. If another node is already starting we
will wait 3 second and try again. This is executed in DBDIH as part of
NDB_STTOR phase 2.
After completing the NDB_STTOR phase 2 the STTOR phase 3 continues by the
CMVMI module activating the checks of send packed data which is used by scan
and key operations to decrease signalling overhead.
Next the BACKUP module reads the configured nodes. Next the SUMA module sets
the reference to the Page Pool such that it can reuse pages from this global
memory pool, next DBTUX sets the restart type. Finally PGMAN starts a stats
loop and a cleanup loop that will run as long as the node is up and running.
We could crash the node if our node is still involved in some processes
ongoing in the master node. This is fairly normal and will simply trigger a
crash followed by a normal new start up by the angel process. The request
for permission is handled by the master sending the information to all nodes.
For initial starts the request for permission can be quite time consuming
since we have to invalidate all local checkpoints from all tables in the
meta data on all nodes. There is no parallelisation of this invalidation
process currently, so it will invalidate one table at a time. If the node
fails during this process the next time it tries to start it will be
blocked by START_PERMREQ until this invalidation process is completed.
STTOR Phase 4After completing STTOR phase 3 we move onto STTOR phase 4. This phase starts
by DBLQH acquiring a backup record in the BACKUP module that will be used
for local checkpoint processing.
Next NDBCNTR starts NDB_STTOR phase 3. This starts also in DBLQH where we
read the configured nodes. Then we start reading the REDO log to get it
set-up (we will set this up in the background, it will be synchronised by
another part of cluster restart/node restart later described), for all types
of initial starts we will wait until the initialisation of the REDO log have
been completed until reporting this phase as completed.
Next DBDICT will read the configured nodes whereafter also DBTC reads the
configured nodes and starts transaction counters reporting. Next in
NDB_STTOR phase 3 is that DBDIH initialises restart data for initial starts.
Before completing its work in STTOR phase 4, NDBCNTR will set-up a waiting
point such that all starting nodes have reached this point before
proceeding. This is only done for cluster starts/restarts, so not for node
The master node controls this waitpoint and will send the signal
NDB_STARTREQ to DBDIH when all nodes of the cluster restart have reached
this point. More on this signal later.
The final thing happening in STTOR phase 4 is that DBSPJ reads the configured
STTOR Phase 5We now move onto STTOR phase 5. The first thing done here is to run NDB_STTOR
phase 4. Only DBDIH does some work here and it only does something in node
restarts. In this case it asks the current master node to start it up by
sending the START_MEREQ signal to it.
START_MEREQ works by copying distribution information from master DBDIH node
and then also meta data information from master DBDICT. It copies one table
of distribution information at a time which makes the process a bit slow
since it includes writing the table to disk in the starting node.
The only manner to trace this event is when writing the table distribution
information per table in DBDIH in the starting node. We can trace the
reception of DICTSTARTREQ that is received in the starting nodes DBDICT.
When DBDIH and DBDICT information is copied then we need to block the global
checkpoint in order to include the new node in all changes of meta data and
distribution information from now on. This is performed by sending
INCL_NODEREQ to all nodes. After this we can release the meta data lock that
was set by DBDIH already in STTOR phase 2.
After completing NDB_STTOR phase 4, NDBCNTR synchronises the start again in
the following manner:
If initial cluster start and master then create system tables
If cluster start/restart then wait for all nodes to reach this point.
After waiting for nodes in a cluster start/restart then run NDB_STTOR
phase 5 in master node (only sent to DBDIH).
If node restart then run NDB_STTOR phase 5 (only sent to DBDIH).
NDB_STTOR phase 5 in DBDIH is waiting for completion of a local checkpoint
if it is a master and we are running a cluster start/restart. For node
restarts we send the signal START_COPYREQ to the starting node to ask for
copying of data to our node.
START OF DATABASE RECOVERY
We start with explaining a number of terms usedLCP: Local checkpoint, in NDB this means that all data in main memory is
written to disk and we also write changed disk pages to disk to ensure
that all changes before a certain point is available on disk.
Execute REDO log: This means that we're reading the REDO log one REDO log
record at a time and executing the action if needed that is found in the
REDO log record.
Apply the REDO log: Synonym of execute the REDO log.
Prepare REDO log record: This is a REDO log record that contains the
information about a change in the database (insert/delete/update/write).
COMMIT REDO log record: This is a REDO log record that specifies that a
Prepare REDO log record is to be actually executed. The COMMIT REDO log
record contains a back reference to the Prepare REDO log record.
ABORT REDO log record: Similarly to the COMMIT REDO log record but here
the transaction was aborted so there is no need to apply the REDO log
Database: Means in this context all the data residing in the cluster or
in the node when there is a node restart.
Off-line Database: Means that our database in our node is not on-line
and thus cannot be used for reading. This is the state of the database
after restoring a LCP, but before applying the REDO log.
Off-line Consistent database: This is a database state which is not
up-to-date with the most recent changes, but it represents an old state
in the database that existed previously. This state is achieved after
restoring an LCP and executing the REDO log.
On-line Database: This is a database state which is up-to-date, any node
that can be used to read data has its database on-line (actually
fragments are brought on-line one by one).
On-line Recoverable Database: This is an on-line database that is also
recoverable. In a node restart we reach the state on-line database first,
but we need to run an LCP before the database can also be recovered to
its current state. A recoverable database is also durable so this means
that we're adding the D in ACID to the database when we reach this state.
Node: There are API nodes, data nodes and management server nodes. A data
node is a ndbd/ndbmtd process that runs all the database logic and
contains the database data. The management server node is a process that
runs ndb_mgmd that contains the cluster configuration and also performs
a number of management services. API nodes are part of application processes
and within mysqld's. There can be more than one API node per application
process. Each API node is connected through a socket (or other
communication media) to each of the data nodes and management server nodes.
When one refers to nodes in this text it's mostly implied that we're
talking about a data node.
Node Group: A set of data nodes that all contain the same data. The number
of nodes in a node group is equal to the number of replicas we use in the
Fragment: A part of a table that is fully stored on one node group.
Partition: Synonym of fragment.
Fragment replica: This is one fragment in one node. There can be up
to 4 replicas of a fragment (so thus a node group can have up to
4 nodes in it).
Distribution information: This is information about the partitions
(synonym of fragments) of the tables and on which nodes they reside
and information about LCPs that have been executed on each fragment
Metadata: This is the information about tables, indexes, triggers,
foreign keys, hash maps, files, log file groups, table spaces.
Dictionary information: Synonym to metadata.
LDM: Stands for Local Data Manager, these are the blocks that execute
the code that handles the data handled within one data node. It contains
blocks that handles the tuple storage, the primary key hash index, the
T-tree index, the page buffer manager, the tablespace manager, a block
that writes LCPs and a block that restores LCPs, a log manager for
process. Here most of the important database recovery algorithms are
executed to bring the database online again. The earlier phases were still
needed to restore the metadata and setup communication, setup memory and
bringing in the starting node as a full citizen in the cluster of data
START_COPYREQ goes through all distribution information and sends
START_FRAGREQ to the owning DBLQH module instance for each fragment replica
to be restored on the node. DBLQH will start immediately to restore those
fragment replicas, it will queue the fragment replicas and restore one at a
time. This happens in two phases, first all fragment replicas that requires
restore of a local checkpoint starts to do that.
After all fragment replicas to restore have been sent and we have restored all
fragments from a local checkpoint stored on our disk (or sometime by getting
the entire fragment from an alive node) then it is time to run the disk data
UNDO log. Finally after running this UNDO log we're ready to get the fragment
replicas restored to latest disk-durable state by applying the REDO log.
DBDIH will send all required information for all fragment replicas to DBLQH
whereafter it sends START_RECREQ to DBLQH to indicate all fragment replica
information have been sent now.
START_RECREQ is sent through the DBLQH proxy module and this part is
parallelised such that all LDM instances are performing the below parts in
If we're doing a initial node restart we don't need to restore any local
checkpoints since initial node restart means that we start without a file
system. So this means that we have to restore all data from other nodes in
the node group. In this case we start applying the copying of fragment
replicas immediately in DBLQH when we receive START_FRAGREQ. In this case
we don't need to run any Undo or Redo log since there is no local checkpoint
to restore the fragment.
When this is completed and DBDIH has reported that all fragment replicas to
start have been sent by sending START_RECREQ to DBLQH we will send
START_RECREQ to TSMAN whereafter we are done with the restore of the data.
We will specify all fragment replicas to restore as part of REDO log
execution. This is done through the signal EXEC_FRAGREQ. When all such signals
have been sent we send EXEC_SRREQ to indicate we have prepared for the next
phase of REDO log execution in DBLQH.
When all such signals are sent we have completed what is termed as phase 2
of DBLQH, the phase 1 in DBLQH is what started in NDB_STTOR phase 3 to prepare
the REDO log for reading it. So when both those phases are complete we're ready
to start what is termed phase 3 in DBLQH.
These DBLQH phases are not related to the start phases, these are internal
stages of startup in the DBLQH module.
Phase 3 in DBLQH is the reading of the REDO log and applying it on fragment
replicas restored from the local checkpoint. This is required to create a
database state which is synchronised on a specific global checkpoint. So we
first install a local checkpoint for all fragments, next we apply the REDO
log to synchronise the fragment replica with a certain global checkpoint.
Before executing the REDO log we need to calculate the start GCI and the last
GCI to apply in the REDO log by checking the limits on all fragment replicas
we will restore to the desired global checkpoint.
DBDIH has stored information about each local checkpoint of a fragment
replica which global checkpoint ranges that are required to run from the REDO
log in order to bring it to the state of a certain global checkpoint. This
information was sent in the START_FRAGREQ signal. DBLQH will merge all of
those limits per fragment replica to a global range of global checkpoints to
run for this LDM instance. So each fragment replica has its own GCP id range
to execute and this means that the minimum of all those start ranges and
maximum of all the end ranges is the global range of GCP ids that we need
to execute in the REDO log to bring the cluster on-line again.
The next step is to calculate the start and stop megabyte in the REDO log for
each log part by using the start and stop global checkpoint id. All the
information required to calculate this is already in memory, so it's a pure
When we execute the REDO log we actually only apply the COMMIT records in the
correct global checkpoint range. The COMMIT record and the actual change
records are in different places in the REDO log, so for each Megabyte of
REDO log we record how far back in the REDO log we have to go to find the
While running the REDO log we maintain a fairly large cache of the REDO log
to avoid that we have to do disk reads in those cases where the transaction
ran for a long time.
This means that long-running and large transactions can have a negative effect
on restart times.
After all log parts have completed this calculation we're now ready to start
executing the REDO log. After executing the REDO log to completion we also
write some stuff into the REDO log to indicate that any information beyond
what we used here won't be used at any later time.
We now need to wait for all other log parts to also complete execution of
their parts of the REDO log. The REDO log execution is designed such that we
can execute the REDO log in more than one phase, this is intended for cases
where we can rebuild a node from more than one live node. Currently this code
should never be used.
So the next step is to check for the new head and tail of the REDO log parts.
This is done through the same code that uses start and stop global
checkpoints to calculate this number. This phase of the code also prepares
the REDO log parts for writing new REDO log records by ensuring that the
proper REDO log files are open. It also involves some rather tricky code to
ensure that pages that have been made dirty are properly handled.
COMPLETED RESTORING OFF-LINE CONSISTENT DATABASE
checkpoint, we will now start rebuilding the ordered indexes based on the
data restored. After rebuilding the ordered indexes we are ready to send
START_RECCONF to the starting DBDIH. START_RECCONF is sent through the
DBLQH proxy, so it won't be passed onto DBDIH until all DBLQH instances
have completed this phase and responded with START_RECCONF.
At this point in the DBLQH instances we have restored a consistent but old
variant of all data in the node. There are still no ordered indexes and there
is still much work remaining to get the node synchronised with the other nodes
again. For cluster restarts it might be that the node is fully ready to go,
it's however likely that some nodes still requires being synchronised with
nodes that have restored a more recent global checkpoint.
The DBDIH of the starting node will then start the take over process now
that the starting node has consistent fragment replicas. We will prepare the
starting node's DBLQH for the copying phase by sending PREPARE_COPY_FRAG_REQ
for each fragment replica we will copy over. This is a sequential process that
could be parallelised a bit.
The process to take over a fragment replica is quite involved. It starts by
sending PREPARE_COPY_FRAGREQ/CONF to the starting DBLQH, then we send
UPDATE_TOREQ/CONF to the master DBDIH to ensure we lock the fragment
information before the take over starts. After receiving confirmation of this
fragment lock, the starting node send UPDATE_FRAG_STATEREQ/CONF to all nodes to
include the new node into all operations on the fragment.
After completing this we again send UPDATE_TOREQ/CONF to the master node to
inform of the new status and unlock the lock on the fragment information. Then
we're ready to perform the actual copying of the fragment. This is done by
sending COPY_FRAGREQ/CONF to the node that will copy the data. When this
copying is done we send COPY_ACTIVEREQ/CONF to the starting node to activate
the fragment replica.
Next we again send UPDATE_TOREQ/CONF to the master informing about that we're
about to install the commit the take over of the new fragment replica. Next we
commit the new fragment replica by sending UPDATE_FRAG_STATEREQ/CONF to all
nodes informing them about completion of the copying of the fragment replica.
Finally we send another update to the master node with UPDATE_TOREQ/CONF.
Now we're finally complete with copying of this fragment.
The idea with this scheme is that the first UPDATE_FRAG_STATEREQ ensures that
we're a part of all transactions on the fragment. After doing the COPY_FRAGREQ
that synchronises the starting node's fragment replica with the alive node's
fragment replica on a row by row basis, we're sure that the two fragment
replicas are entirely synchronised and we can do a new UPDATE_FRAG_STATEREQ to
ensure all nodes know that we're done with the synchronisation.
In 7.4 this process is parallelised such that each LDM thread can work on
synchronizing one fragment.
COMPLETED RESTORING ON-LINE NOT RECOVERABLE DATABASE
bringing one fragment at a time online. The database is still not
recoverable since we haven't enabled logging yet and there is no local
checkpoint of the data in the starting node.
Next step is to enable REDO logging on all fragments, after completing this step
we will send END_TOREQ to the master DBDIH. At this point we will wait until a
local checkpoint is completed where this node have been involved. Finally when
the local checkpoint have been completed we will send END_TOCONF to the
starting node and then we will send START_COPYCONF and that will complete
this phase of the restart.
COMPLETED RESTORING ON-LINE RECOVERABLE DATABASE
online and now we have also executed a local checkpoint afer enabling
logging and so now data in the starting node is also recoverable. So this
means that the database is now fully online again.
After completing NDB_STTOR phase 5 then all nodes that have been synchronised
in a waitpoint here are started again and NDBCNTR continues by running
phase 6 of NDB_STTOR.
In this phase DBLQH, DBDICT and DBTC sets some status variables indicating
that now the start has completed (it's not fully completed yet, but all
services required for those modules to operate are completed. DBDIH also
starts global checkpoint protocol for cluster start/restarts where it has
become the master node.
Yet one more waiting point for all nodes is now done in the case of a cluster
The final step in STTOR phase 5 is SUMA that reads the configured nodes,
gets the node group members and if there is node restart it asks another
node to recreate subscriptions for it.
STTOR Phase 6We now move onto STTOR phase 6. In this phase NDBCNTR gets the node group of
the node, DBUTIL gets the systable id, prepares a set of operations for later
use and connects to TC to enable it to run key operations on behalf of other
modules later on.
STTOR Phase 7
that will run as long as the node lives.
QMGR will start arbitration handling to handle a case where we are at risk of
BACKUP will update the disk checkpoint speed (there is one config variable
for speed during restarts and one for normal operation, here we install the
normal operation speed). If initial start BACKUP will also create a backup
sequence through DBUTIL.
SUMA will create a sequence if it's running in a master node and it's an
initial start. SUMA will also always calculate which buckets it is
responsible to handle. Finally DBTUX will start monitoring of ordered indexes.
STTOR Phase 8
NDB_STTOR in which DBDICT enables foreign keys. Next NDBCNTR will also wait
for all nodes to come here if we're doing a cluster start/restart.
Next CMVMI will set state to STARTED and QMGR will enable communication to
all API nodes.
STTOR Phase 101
takes over responsibility of the buckets it is responsible for in the
asynchronous replication handling.
Major potential consumers of time so far:
All steps in the memory allocation (all steps of the READ_CONFIG_REQ).
CMVMI STTOR phase 1 that could lock memory. QMGR phase 1 that runs the
node inclusion protocol.
NDBCNTR STTOR phase 2 that waits for CNTR_START_REQ, DBLQH REDO log
initialisation for initial start types that happens in STTOR phase 2.
Given that only one node can be in this phase at a time, this can be
stalled by a local checkpoint wait of another node starting. So this
wait can be fairly long.
DBLQH sets up connections to DBACC and DBTUP, this is NDB_STTOR phase 2.
DBDIH in NDB_STTOR phase 2 also can wait for the meta data to be locked
and it can wait for response to START_PERMREQ.
For initial starts waiting for DBLQH to complete NDB_STTOR phase 3 where
it initialises set-up of the REDO logs. NDBCNTR for cluster start/restarts
in STTOR phase 4 after completing NDB_STTOR phase 3 have to wait for all
nodes to reach this point and then it has to wait for NDB_STARTREQ to
For node restarts we have delays in waiting for response to START_MEREQ
signal and START_COPYREQ, this is actually where most of the real work of
the restart is done. SUMA STTOR phase 5 where subscriptions are recreated
is another potential time consumer.
All waitpoints are obvious potential consumers of time. Those are mainly
located in NDBCNTR (waitpoint 5.2, 5,1 and 6).
AXE virtual machine. In AXE the starts were using the module MISSRA to
drive the STTOR/STTORRY signals for the various startup phases.
The MISSRA was later merged into NDBCNTR and is a submodule of NDBCNTR
nowadays. The name of STTOR and STTORRY has some basis in the AXE systems
way of naming signals in early days but has been forgotten now. At least
the ST had something to do wih Start/Restart.
2) The reason for introducing the NDB_STTOR was since we envisioned a system
where the NDB kernel was just one subsystem within the run-time environment.
So therefore we introduced separate start phases for the NDB subsystem.
Over time the need for such a subsystem startup phases are no longer there,
but the software is already engineered for this and thus it's been kept in
3) Also the responsibility for the distributed parts of the database start
is divided. QMGR is responsible for discovering when nodes are up and down.
NDBCNTR maintains the protocols for failure handling and other changes of the
node configuration. Finally DBDIH is responsible for the distributed start of
the database parts. It interacts a lot with DBLQH that have the local
responsibility of starting one nodes database part as directed by DBDIH.
Local checkpoint processing in MySQL Cluster
This comment attempts to describe the processing of checkpoints as it happens
in MySQL Cluster. It also clarifies where potential bottlenecks are. This
comment is mainly intended as internal documentation of the open source code
of MySQL Cluster.
The reason for local checkpoints in MySQL Cluster is to ensure that we have
copy of data on disk which can be used to run the REDO log against to restore
the data in MySQL Cluster after a crash.
We start by introducing different restart variants in MySQL Cluster. The first
variant is a normal node restart, this means that the node have been missing
for a short time, but is now back on line again. We start by installing a
checkpointed version of all tables (including executing proper parts of the
REDO log against it). Next step is to use the replica which are still online
to make the checkpointed version up to date. Replicas are always organised in
node groups, the most common size of a node group is two nodes. So when a
node starts up, it uses the other node in the same node group to get an
online version of the tables back online. In a normal node restart we have
first restored a somewhat old version of all tables before using the other
node to synchronize it. This means that we only need to ship the latest
version of the rows that have been updated since the node failed before the
node restart. We also have the case of initial node restarts where all data
have to be restored from the other node since the checkpoint in the starting
node is either too old to be reused or it's not there at all when a completely
new node is started up.
The third variant of restart is a so called system restart, this means that
the entire cluster is starting up after a cluster crash or after a controlled
stop of the cluster. In this restart type we first restore a checkpoint on all
nodes before running the REDO log to get the system in a consistent and
up-to-date state. If any node was restored to an older global checkpoint than
the one to restart from, then it is necessary to use the same code used in
node restarts to bring those node to an online state.
The system restart will restore a so called global checkpoint. A set of
transactions are grouped together into a global checkpoint, when this global
checkpoint has been completed the transactions belonging to it are safe and
will survive a cluster crash. We run global checkpoints on a second level,
local checkpoints write the entire data set to disk and is a longer process
taking at least minutes.
Before a starting node can be declared as fully restored it has to participate
in a local checkpoint. The crashing node misses a set of REDO log record
needed to restore the cluster, thus the node isn't fully restored until it can
be used to restore all data it owns in a system restart.
So when performing a rolling node restart where all nodes in the cluster are
restarted (e.g. to upgrade the software in MySQL Cluster), it makes sense to
restart a set of nodes at a time since we can only have one set of nodes
restarted at a time.
This was a bit of prerequisite to understand the need for local checkpoints.
We now move to the description of how a local checkpoint is processed.
The local checkpoint is a distributed process. It is controlled by a
software module called DBDIH (or DIH for short, DIstribution Handler).
DIH contains all the information about where various replicas of each fragment
(synonym with partition) are placed and various data on these replicas.
DIH stores distribution information in one file per table. This file is
actually two files, this is to ensure that we can do careful writing of the
file. We first write file 0, when this is completed, we write file 1,
in this manner we can easily handle any crashes while writing the table
When a local checkpoint have been completed, DIH immediately starts the
process to start the next checkpoint. At least one global checkpoint have
to be completed since starting the local checkpoint before we will start a
new local checkpoint.
The first step in the next local checkpoint is to check if we're ready to
run it yet. This is performed by sending the message TCGETOPSIZEREQ to all
TC's in the cluster. This will report back the amount of REDO log information
generated by checking the information received in TC for all write
transactions. The message will be sent by the master DIH. The role of the
master is assigned to the oldest surviving data node, this makes it easy to
select a new master whenever a data node currently acting as master dies.
All nodes agree on the order of nodes entering the cluster, so the age of
a node is consistent in all nodes in the cluster.
When all messages have returned the REDO log write size to the master
DIH we will compare it to the config variable TimeBetweenLocalCheckpoints
(this variable is set in logarithm of size, so e.g. 25 means we wait
2^25 words of REDO log has been created in the cluster which is 128 MByte
of REDO log info).
When sufficient amount of REDO log is generated, then we start the next local
checkpoint, the first step is to clear all TC counters, this is done by
sending TC_CLOPSIZEREQ to all TC's in the cluster.
The next step is to calculate the keep GCI (this is the oldest global
checkpoint id that needs to be retained in the REDO log). This number is very
important since it's the point where we can move the tail of the REDO log
forward. If we run out of REDO log space we will not be able to run any
writing transactions until we have started the next local checkpoint and
thereby moved the REDO log tail forward.
We calculate this number by checking each fragment what GCI it needs to be
restored. We currently keep two old local checkpoints still valid, so we
won't move the GCI back to invalidate the two oldest local checkpoints per
fragment. The GCI that will be restorable after completing this calculation
is the minimum GCI found on all fragments when looping over them.
Next we write this number and the new local checkpoint id and some other
information in the Sysfile of all nodes in the cluster. This Sysfile is the
first thing we look at when starting a restore of the cluster in a system
restart, so it's important to have this type of information correct in this
When this is done we will calculate which nodes that will participate in the
local checkpoint (nodes currently performing the early parts of a restart is
not part of the local checkpoint and obviously also not dead nodes).
We send the information about the starting local checkpoint to all other DIH's
in the system. We must keep all other DIH's up-to-date all the time to ensure
it is easy to continue the local checkpoint also when the master DIH crashes
or is stopped in the middle of the local checkpoint process. Each DIH records
the set of nodes participating in the local checkpoint. They also set a flag
on each replica record indicating a local checkpoint is ongoing, on each
fragment record we also set the number of replicas that are part of this local
Now we have completed the preparations for the local checkpoint, it is now
time to start doing the actual checkpoint writing of the actual data. The
master DIH controls this process by sending off a LCP_FRAG_ORD for each
fragment replica that should be checkpointed. DIH can currently have 64 such
LCP_FRAG_ORD outstanding per node and 64 fragment replicas queued. Each LDM
thread can process writing of one fragment replica at a time and it can
have one request for the next fragment replica queued. It's fairly
straightforward to extend this number such that more fragment replicas can
be written in parallel and more can be queued.
LCP_FRAG_REP is sent to all DIH's when the local checkpoint for a fragment
replica is completed. When a DIH discovers that all fragment replicas of a
table have completed the local checkpoint, then it's time to write the table
description to the file system. This will record the interesting local
checkpoint information for all of the fragment replicas. There are two things
that can cause this to wait. First writing and reading of the entire table
description is something that can only happen one at a time, this mainly
happens when there is some node failure handling ongoing while the local
checkpoint is being processed.
The second thing that can block the writing of a table description is that
currently a maximum of 4 table descriptions can be written in parallel. This
could easily become a bottleneck since each write a file can take in the order
of fifty milliseconds. So this means we can currently only write about 80 such
tables per second. In a system with many tables and little data this could
become a bottleneck. It should however not be a difficult bottleneck.
When the master DIH has sent all requests to checkpoint all fragment replicas
it will send a special LCP_FRAG_ORD to all nodes indicating that no more
fragment replicas will be sent out.